“Absolutely Every One” – 15 Out of 15 – Bluefin Tuna Tested In California Waters Contaminated with Fukushima Radiation

California Fish Contaminated with Fukushima Radiation

We noted more than a year ago:

The ocean currents head from Japan to the West Coast of the U.S.

***

Of course, fish don’t necessarily stay still, either. For example, the Telegraph notes that scientists tagged a bluefin tuna and found that it crossed between Japan and the West Coast three times in 600 days:

news graphics 2005  607819a FDA Refuses to Test Fish for Radioactivity ... Government Pretends Radioactive Fish Is Safe

That might be extreme, but the point is that fish exposed to radiation somewhere out in the ocean might end up in U.S. waters.

And see this.

CNN reports today:

Low levels of radioactive cesium from Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident turned up in fish caught off California in 2011, researchers reported Monday.

The bluefin spawn off Japan, and many migrate across the Pacific Ocean. Tissue samples taken from 15 bluefin caught in August, five months after the meltdowns at Fukushima Daiichi, all contained reactor byproducts cesium-134 and cesium-137 at levels that produced radiation about 3% higher than natural background sources

The Wall Street Journal quotes the studies’ authors:

“The tuna packaged it up and brought it across the world’s largest ocean,” said marine ecologist Daniel Madigan at Stanford University, who led the study team. “We were definitely surprised to see it at all and even more surprised to see it in every one we measured.”

***

“We found that absolutely every one of them had comparable concentrations of cesium-134 and cesium-137,” said marine biologist Nicholas Fisher at Stony Brook University in New York state, who was part of the study group.

The bad news is that it is only going to get worse.

As Reuters points out:

Unlike some other compounds, radioactive cesium does not quickly sink to the sea bottom but remains dispersed in the water column, from the surface to the ocean floor.

Fish can swim right through it, ingesting it through their gills, by taking in seawater or by eating organisms that have already taken it in ….

As CNN notes:

Neither [of the scientists who tested the fish] thought they were likely to find cesium at all, they said. And since the fish tested were born about a year before the disaster, “This year’s fish are going to be really interesting,” Madigan said.

“There were fish born around the time of the accident, and those are the ones showing up in California right now,” he said. “Those have been, for the most part, swimming around in those contaminated waters their whole lives.”

In other words, the 15 fish tested were only exposed to radiation for a short time. But bluefin arriving in California now will have been exposed to the Fukushima radiation for much longer.

As KGTV San Diego explains:

The real test of how radioactivity affects tuna populations comes this summer when researchers planned to repeat the study with a larger number of samples. Bluefin tuna that journeyed last year were exposed to radiation for about a month. The upcoming travelers have been swimming in radioactive waters for a longer period. How this will affect concentrations of contamination remains to be seen.

One of the studies’ authors told the BBC:

The fish that will be arriving around now, and in the coming months, to California waters may be carrying considerably more radioactivity and if so they may possibly be a public health hazard.

Japanese and U.S. officials – of course – are pretending that the amount of radiation found in the bluefin is safe. But the overwhelming scientific consensus is that there is no safe level of radiation … and radiation consumed and taken into the body is much more dangerous than background radiation.

This entry was posted in Energy / Environment, Politics / World News, Science / Technology. Bookmark the permalink.
  • Mad Max

    Check out “Death By Technology” by Dan Thomas. We’re in a lot more trouble then we think. That’s why we’re in decline. We just don’t understand what we’re up against or what to do about it.

    FIGHT THE CAUSE – NOT THE SYMPTOM

  • gozounlimited

    Sushi ….. not looking so appetizing lately……the death of a cuisine? The death of the drone?

    Following columnist Charles Krauthammer’s observation that the first person to shoot down a surveillance drone on U.S. soil will be a “folk hero,” gun enthusiasts in Texas have done precisely that as a protest against the use of spy drones on the American people. read more: http://www.prisonplanet.com/drones-shot-down-over-texas.html …..
    ************
    If there’s nothing wrong at Fukushima, why won’t they allow outside experts to inspect the plant?

    If the nuclear disaster that has befallen the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant is absolutely nothing to be concerned about, as some have nonsensically maintained despite the evidence to the contrary, why on Earth would Akio Komori, an executive at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), refuse to allow outside experts to inspect the facility?

    It is quite a simple question which should be able to be easily answered by those who continue to maintain that anyone who points out the continuing dangers and potential disaster with spent fuel pool number four is blowing the situation out of proportion. read more: http://www.activistpost.com/2012/05/if-theres-nothing-wrong-at-fukushima.html#more
    ************
    Naoto Kan, Japan’s Former Leader, Condemns Nuclear Power

    In an unusually stark warning, Japan’s prime minister during last year’s nuclear crisis told a parliamentary inquiry on Monday that the country should discard nuclear power as too dangerous, saying the Fukushima accident had pushed Japan to the brink of “national collapse.” read more: http://cryptogon.com/?p=29414

  • trader

    It was obvious that this was coming. I stocked up on canned fish creating at least a 5 year supply within days after the disaster. After 5 years, I’ll only be eating local caught or confinement fed fish… if any. They are right, this is just started and I don’t think we’ll ever hear how bad it’s really going to get. We are and will be lied to and what does get out will be sugar coated so much that you can’t believe it either. This is a huge disaster for us! Not as large as oBama, but still very bad.

    • krinklkrankl

      Aww, too bad for us lowly members of the “precariat” who couldn’t afford to hoard a 5 yr. supply of fish. Slightly tacky of you to mention yours, Mr Rockefeller, eh what?

      • Christina Tretter

        To bad the cans you are eating from are lined with BPA!!!

  • http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0075YJ5U0 Natural Health Cures

    Great! Another thing we have to watch out for when selecting our seafood, as if PCBs weren’t enough!

    • Kristie

      dont forget the corexit with the seafood from the east coast,, sorry to say it but seafood is off the menu.

  • Dr. Bob Zoeller

    Seeing as the margin of error is 4.5%, I’m not sure how a 3% increase is newsworthy…

    This is sensationalism and bad journalism (not the blog article, so much as the source). Obviously the authors don’t understand anything about environmental radiation.

    • Kristie

      and I guess the earth is flat? I am not understanding what you are saying? Are you saying that the nuclear industry is safe and that we dont need to worry about contamination from Fukushima or any other nuclear plants? Please say what your trying to say, dont beat around the bush

    • Rick

      Not only is this amount of radiation negligible, but scientific consensus no longer supports the theory that there is no safe level of radiation. Current scientific consensus is that these low levels of radiation are easily overcome by the natural immune responses of the human body. The conclusion to this story is nothing other than scare mongering.

  • OffKeySONGS

    To Dr. Bob, is your attention tuned to the pods of cetaceans and migratory mammals that were passing through the Japanese coast during the March 2011 event? The migratory whales and accompanying species arrived at the Alaskan Peninsula with their skin sloughing off and large sores over their bodies. More than a few died in Alaskan waters and as many beached and died with signs of radiation sickness on all, as described by scientists and veterinarians knowledgeable of the symptoms of radiation poisoning. This is not sensationalism, and your comment is contentious on the grounds that the general public does not have an opportunity to the data and selectiveness of sources as one bearing a doctorate degree, along with the mockery of the author without the knowledge of the complete story or the facts.
    Commentary should be of a factual nature and not a mockery of one’s efforts to inform or communicate difficult topics.
    The use of mockery is a sure sign of a lack of an intelligent and useful comment.

  • Conor

    The animals who swam in the water in the first few days are screwed. But it’s been severely diluted, and continues to be, and no new contaminated water is coming in. The cesium in these fish is likely less dangerous than the mercury in them. This particular substance is substantially more dangerous when ingested, true, but your rems from it are insignificant. And small amounts of radiation may have positive effects – did you know radiologists live longer than any other specialty in medicine?

    • Kristie

      no amount of radiation is safe,, so not sure where you got that from, and just because their colleagues, the Doctors and Dentists all either kill them selves or die of cancers is not going to give the radiologists any bonus points for staying alive longer than the shortest lived persons on the planet,, oh yes besides the Lakota. Your comment is incorect

  • DW3 Project

    In addition ,leakage from the Hanford project in Washington into the Columbia River ,and then into the Pacific may be another contributing factor.

  • skeberr

    This is sad and sickening. Our government could not care less for us, we’re just ants to them. It’s all about the money, like everything else in this crumbling world!

    • yarnmaven

      What exactly did you want the government to do?

      • Mary G.

        How about warning us to NOT eat tuna????

        • Alex Barrios

          um, maybe you should not eat something if it can potentially make you sick….. it is your responsibility to decide what to eat……. the government shouldn’t parent you and tell you what you can’t and can do…… that is the beauty of being free.

          • kristeena

            No no n o that is ridiculous. . I didn’t even hear of this until January 1st and is been going on for years!? How are we supposed to know If no one is saying anything!! It’s not like I’m deep sea fishing to test radiation levels!

      • pootanki

        Restricting the sale of fish that are contaminated in the way they recall meat or any other food item that is dangerous for consumption.

        • Keven Walters

          Do yo really believe the government warns us of all dangerous to eat meat or any other food item that is dangerous for consumption? No disrespect intended, but wake up.

          • Karon Reiter

            I am awake. That’s the point, I don’t believe that the government is taking the necessary steps to warn us of all the dangerous foods to eat – BUT THEY SHOULD.

          • Keven Walters

            I agree. My point is the American government does not protect us from eating toxic meats on the shelf from the local grocery store, or other foods. They allow us to eat harmful toxins and additives to appease the food industry and cattle industry and dairy industry as well as others. So the point brings to light how we can and should not expect the government to protect us from the toxic fish either. it is sad, but true that we have to be on out own to protect ourselves. Thankfully we are able to have forums online and try to educate and help each other out.

          • Karon Reiter

            I agree totally with you but I think we should hold them accountable. To say “don’t expect any help from the government” is to keep things the way they are, which, in fact, will only make it worse. We need to enact change ourselves, whether it’s holding our representatives accountable or boycotting mega food groceries, buying local instead. Just like I closed out my accounts with Wells Fargo and Chase in response to the banks criminal practices, and opened an account with a local credit union, along with thousands of others. Not giving these companies our business is a start in letting our voices be heard. Apathy has never enacted change. What’s that expression? In order for evil to prevail is for good men to do nothing.

          • kristeena

            No disrespect either but I have chosen healthy foods for my 1 year old and family. Fish is an important food source and I hadn’t heard if this until January 2014!!!??! F that!

  • Akasha

    It’s so disturbing. There’s really nothing to stop it at this point… though I wish everyone would stand up and fight to force our governments to do something to shut Fukushima down and take steps to clean up!

    If you’re as worried as I am, try to protect yourself, stay informed and don’t believe everything you read.. The best way to stay safe is to avoid ingesting radioactive foods and water as much as possible. It builds up in the body over time and causes innumerable health problems. Bought this filter for home and it’s the best I’ve found. It’s more pricey than some, but well worth it for all it does. Pure Effects also sell systems for the whole home, It’s the only one I know of that filters radioactive particles as well as heavy metals, pesticides, chlorine and more. Definitely worth a look: http://www.pureeffectfilters.com/#a_aid=Phoenix

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Jo-An-Gaines/516546634 Jo An Gaines

    What do we eat??

    • http://wiseoldsnail.org/ wiseoldsnail

      pretty soon : nothing . even the food we grow at home is watered with toxins put in by the government

      • Pucci

        When we first moved to the Olympic Peninsula 10 years ago, our water tasted fabulous! But the little city decided to add all those stupid things they deem necessary and I have to fill a large pitcher and let it sit to dissipate the chlorine taste. We also have several 5-gallon pails in the yard we let sit for 3 days before using to replace our 2 ponds where we have goldfish and koi. It is disgusting!

        • http://wiseoldsnail.org/ wiseoldsnail

          sad . they are poisoning us slowly but surely

      • OutdoorWoman

        I moved out of the city so I can supply my own water with a well (tested yearly for safety) and grow my own food. It’s a lot of peace of mind.

        • Mary G.

          Same here.

      • OutdoorWoman

        I moved out of the city so I can supply my own water with a well (tested yearly for safety) and grow my own food. It’s a lot of peace of mind.

    • CG

      Eat Organic, locally grown foods. and better yet, start a garden and grow some of your own. The Clean Food Revolution starts with YOU!

      • amerikagulag

        I can’ grow tuna in my garden! ;-)

        • Mary G.

          You can raise heirloom hens for eggs and meat though. Or even go vegan.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Elizabeth-Stevens/634613816 Elizabeth Stevens

    It is sad, but have they tested tuna in other places around the world for comparison?

  • Rezwan Razani

    This is great! Either it’s not that dangerous to have 3% more cesium than background, so nothing to worry about (unless of course, the “no safe level” guys are right and the DOE is a bastion of voodoo science) – or it’s too high a public health risk, and people will stop buying the tuna, thus giving them a chance to rebound in population. Of course, some of them will be deformed and die, but so many more die from the overfishing, so this would overall be a boon for them. Go fish!

    • John Rudmin

      Or it is that dangerous, but humans keep gobbling up the bluefin anyway.

    • pootanki

      But if you keep eating that 3% over a period of time, it builds up to more of a percentage – because the 3% will stay in your body along with the next 3% — and then BAM!!! you got enough to give you cancer or some other debilitating disease.

  • Leslie Viljoen

    We are all constantly being exposed to radiation from many sources. I’d like to know how this 3% (ingested) compares to other sources like luminous watch dials, mobile phones, microwaves and dental X-rays.

    • H Reed

      I don’t know, how often do you ingest your mobile phones? Our skin is our promary defense against radiation, from the sun or other sources. No skin on our insides.

    • Chemist

      Here’s a quick back-of-the-envelope calculation:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Background_radiation

      Ingestion of food and water accounts for 0.29 mSv/year in humans. 3% of that is around 0.0087 mSv. You get about that much radiation from a dental x-ray (0.005-0.01 mSv), or a few aircraft flights.

      Of course, remember that a tuna is relatively small, compared to a human. Radiation dosage is always per mass. So if you’re eating 0.2 kg of tuna, and you’re an average 70 kg person, the concentration of Cs-137 (and thus the dose) that ends up in you is going to be 350x smaller than it was in the original fish.

      Basically, this is a bunch of scaremongering.

      • Safety Control Axe Man

        You’re mixing up internal and external exposition. X-raying teeth is external.
        Once 200g of tuna might be OK, but the caesium is not leaving the body 100%, it bioaccumulates. And that mostly in the bones, where it replaces pottassium.
        So look up #bioaccumalation and #compartment modell.
        There are people who eat tuna on a regular basis.

        • Logic

          Look up how to spell.

      • Enviromental scientist

        Yes, you have to watch how the radioactive material accumulates! A single tuna meal may not be terrible, but eaten over a lifetime, we’re talking about a lot of cesium exposure! Wondering how the shark population will do…This ain’t over folks!

        • albeit

          Its probably like mercury. The older the fish, the higher concentration of mercury you’d find in an ounce of meat, simply because the exposure is longer.

          So eat fish that have shorter lives. Always a good idea until the robots have time to strain out all of the mercury. In other words, for the foreseeable future.

      • moderation please

        thank you for putting it in perspective. In our modern world a totally pristine environment or food supply are not attainable or even practicable. Everyone should make informed healthy choices, whether it’s lifestyle (to smoke or not, to drive a car rather than use public transport, for examples) or in what to eat. I don’t eat tuna every day but I am convinced of the benefits of fish as part of a healthy diet. Will radioactivity in my tuna harm me more than any of my other choices? probably not.

      • yoyo

        you are 100% correct but instead you need to compare the size of the portion of tuna consumed, .2kg, with the size of an adult bluefin tuna. Which happens to be 600lbs, with a max of 1600lbs (rare). SO its actually 600-1600x les radiation than what the tuna consumed. that radiation will then be distributed into 70kg of flesh.

    • Safety Control Axe Man

      You still have luminos wachdials in the USA? Leading technology

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Tuomas-Weimar-Santakallio/1450126073 Tuomas Weimar Santakallio

    Quoting probably the greatest musician of all time: “Humans are stupid. I’m ashamed of being a human.”

    • http://www.facebook.com/GreenCPA Brian Setzler

      Your friend is wrong. It’s OUR CULTURE that is killing the planet, not humans. We are not humanity.

      “For millions of years, man lived at peace with the world. This doesn’t mean he was a saint. This doesn’t mean he walked the earth like a Buddha. It means he lived as harmlessly as a hyena or a shark or a rattlesnake.” So how can we learn to live harmlessly in the world — as harmlessly as sharks and tarantulas and rattlesnakes?

  • tstoneami

    What is sickening is the fact that there are plants in as much peril for destruction as the Fukushima plant.

  • http://www.facebook.com/summertime.rose.1 Rosemarie Benintend

    To all the people who ragged on me for saying that disaster would impact the entire earth: eat my shorts.

    • robcrazy68

      i had the same situation. my husband works in a nuke plant so we are well aware of the dangers of a radiation leak. it’s scary and absolutely does impact the earth and doesn’t just go away. but nobody wants to hear that.

      • Karen Finch

        I think every nuclear plant should be completely safe and never let out radiation. It should be hurricane -proof, and tsunami-proof. There should be NO chance of ANY disaster.

    • NotTimHolt

      Yea, it’s pretty much all about you Rosemarie. I am sure your vast knowledge on global effects of nuclear meltdowns is all that stands between us and complete disaster.

      • Karon Reiter

        Why is it, that a regular conversation always seems to bring out someone who has to be snarky and rude?

        • NotTimHolt

          Why is it a regular conversation always brings out someone who has to expound on a subject like they are an expert when in reality they know absolutely nothing, but are never the less willing to share their profound thoughts and conclusions. Oh, and then there are the idiots who defend the rights of other idiots to have opinions on subjects they are ignorant of.

          • pootanki

            And how did what Rosemarie say make her an incompetent expert? What did she say that you perceived her to know absolutely nothing? While I have no idea whether you are as ignorant as you claim others to be, you certainly awfully smug and arrogant.

  • r.halbe

    nobody talks about the pacifik peope. but all about the industrial states. time is always money.
    poooooooorrrrr

  • http://www.facebook.com/danielleegnew Danielle Egnew

    This is not surprising to me. Several weeks after the Fukashima meltdown, everyone here in LA was displaying symptoms of low grade radiation poisoning — a “stomach flu” of sorts that wouldn’t go away, hair loss, and strange skin irritations; I’m no meteorologist but I would guess air (not sea) currents drug some gunk clean across the Pacific. This went on for a few months. I even received a “random” call from the CDC — no joke — asking me if I was experiencing any unusual “flu” symptoms. I could hear the call from from a large call center (I let my voicemail pick it up because I didn’t recognize the number) and I never called back because the call creeped me out. And the last thing I wanted was be round up in some big CDC freak out, lol!! So yeah. Irradiated Tuna? I buy that.

  • Ali Snowdale

    I thought iodine protected against radiation poisoning. you would think living in the ocean their whole life the tuna would have some level of protection from absorbing the radiation – or no? Please explain if you can.

    • Safety Control Axe Man

      Iodine protects the thyroids. Ceasium goes to the bones.

  • Kwyjor

    You say “the overwhelming scientific consensus is that there is no safe level of radiation”, and then link to an article in which it appears that this overwhelming scientific consensus exists when you ignore everyone who says otherwise.

    • Safety Control Axe Man

      Howmany are they? How many the others?
      You allways find someone who says
      there is no global warming,
      mercury, asbestos, smoking, … is no big problem,
      Darwin was wrong
      … and so on
      and they’re allways minorities.
      So you can say there is consesus.

  • Keep Calm

    This is not even remotely dangerous. You get much higher doses of radiation on a plane flight. I could make a similarly sensational article about the radioactivity of bananas.

    • Safety Control Axe Man

      Bananas? Please do, with links to your sources !

      • No really, keep calm

        Funny you should ask! The authors of the study misquoted by this blog created a followup study after the reaction from the public was so overwhelmingly negative and ignorant (due in no small part alarmist blogs like this one). Read it below and then go eat some sushi:

        http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/05/30/1221834110.full.pdf

        If it’s too dense for some of you, this paragraph says it all:

        “Consumption of 200 g (a typical restaurant-sized serving) of PBFT
        [Pacific Bluefin Tuna] contaminated with 4.0 Bq·kg-1 dry weight of
        134Cs and 6.3 Bq·kg-1 dry weight of 137Cs (mean values for PBFT
        caught off San Diego in August 2011) resulted in committed
        effective doses of 3.7 and 4.0 nSv, respectively (Table 1). To put
        this into perspective, the combined dose of 7.7 nSv from these
        two Cs isotopes is only about 5% of the dose acquired from
        eating one uncontaminated banana (assuming 200 g weight) and
        absorbing its naturally occurring 40K (28), and only about 7% of
        the dose attributable to the 40K in the PBFT (Table 1).”

  • hvaiallverden

    More morronic scientific coments I see.
    And regarding radiation, background and eaten(as an ex), is wast, and is not comparable at all.
    Because, and here is the clue, its about Distance from the source.
    A Isotop, where as cesium and or strontium, or others(aprox 1200), is a litle nuclear sun, and if that litle ball of energy conects with any kind of living organism, it will eventualy damage it or harm it severly.

    Some other Isotops are more “natural” but this is about classic math, its the acumulation of energy that Matters, or rads/emitions pr. sec. that countrs.
    Thats why there is NO low level of radiation damage, its al about Mass and energy emitted and finaly, the wurst part of the bullshitt the Nucs never likens to talk about, TIME.

    And we where laughed at for two years ago, and labeled as scare mongers, and now when its arived, nobody cares.
    This is the ONLY thing that scares ME, not wars or something like that, it will be painfull, yea, but compared to the damages possible, the eons of time destroyed, the multitute of organism on this planet is virually hanging by its fingernails.
    The damages to the DNA is only beginning, and this will not manifest it self, yett, but it will.
    WE reap what we saw.

    peace

  • http://www.facebook.com/jessica.denning Jessica Chasko Denning

    Watch “Salmon Confidential,” at http://www.salmonaresacred.org.

  • hp

    Let ‘em eat radioactive isotopes!

  • Startrooper228

    I have never witnessed such utter ignorance. The comments here show absolutely no understanding of basic physics. 3% greater than background? You get a larger increase when sleeping with someone! And “no safe level or radiation…..” Well, then, stop taking your potassium supplements and make sure you don’t eat bananas. Take a physics course folks! And you too Mr. Reporter. And as far as the so-called researchers – every fish? Where’s your controls? Rubbish science!!

    Thank you to the folks that posted real science in the comments. But, if you read most of these comments, they didn’t listen to you – ignorance….

    • TunaLuvr

      Nice to see some levelheadedness. We need more people thinking things through like Startrooper228. I feel bad for everyone who is wasting their time worrying about this. There are actual nuclear threats in the world and they have nothing to do with tuna. Take a course in physics before you freak out people.

  • Charles Zogby

    Ironic: now Japan is nuking us, instead of the other way around. Just in a less dramatic, less intentional way.

  • pootanki

    It’s interesting how a lot of posts here are showing people rationalizing the danger rather than heeding the warning. I say better safe, than sorry later.

    • RCM

      There’s less effort required for rationalization then there is for heeding.

  • Jeriann H. Marks

    Darn, I love albacore tuna.

  • Tyler Durdin

    Now thatI am taking nascent iodine, I can eat all the sushi I want! The iodine blocks the cesium from entering my thyroid. Plus it gives me a boost of energy. You should try it!

  • albeit

    There is no safe level of radiation. That’s why we’re all dead.

    Or would be if such an assertion were true. Sorry, but there’s always some radiation, unless you go live in a lead box.

  • christine

    it should be apparent to anyone who would take a few minutes of their time to do some investigating to realize the serious risk to ocean life. why are huge fish with sores and lumps all over them washing ashore in California and other countries; several years ago we were warned against eating tuna because of its high mercury level…….the internet is full of vast reliable information ………stop blaming the government for not doing anything…….those days are gone and we are on our own……..ocean fish is contaminated with nuclear waste…….eat it and you will die………simple as that

  • DrMaxHathaway

    It gets worse…
    Many of the Nuclear Plants in the USA are operating on 20 year extended licenses that were given like Halloween candy to plant operators (like GE) just for the asking, despite the fact that many of these plants are now and have for a long time already been active beyond their planned, safe life spans.
    So as we get ready for a massive set of reactor meltdowns across the USA, the NRC feigns blindness and the EPA is running around shutting down our only viable source of energy—Coal-fire electrical plants.
    This is what happens when moron Marxist democrats are in power…

  • lessgov

    our oceans have been poisoned by big-business. the food you feed your kids is killing them. WAKE UP!

  • chill

    The next Nobel Prize goes to the ‘figure head’ who deals with this global environmental catastrophe.

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